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STANDARDIZED FLAWED SPECIMEN KITS FOR TRAINING, PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION, PROCEDURE AND EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT.

17.0. STANDARDIZED FLAW SPECIMEN KIT

We are providing standardized flaw specimen kit for accept / reject level of flaws as per individual standards like ASME, AWS, ISO/BS/EN. We are specialized of manufacturing welded flaw specimen in accordance to standard. As per ASME acceptance criteria we are manufacturing flaw specimen with accept level as well as in reject level and providing report with photo document. Similarly we manufacturing welded flaw specimen in accordance with AWS, ISO along with report and photo document.

17.1. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (ASME)

ASME is one of the oldest standards-developing organizations in America. It produces approximately 600 codes and standards covering many technical areas, such as fasteners, plumbing fixtures, elevators, pipelines, and power plant systems and components. ASME's standards are developed by committees of subject matter experts using an open, consensus-based process. Many ASME standards are cited by government agencies as tools to meet their regulatory objectives. ASME standards are therefore voluntary, unless the standards have been incorporated into a legally binding business contract or incorporated into regulations enforced by an authority having jurisdiction, such as a federal, state, or local government agency. ASME's standards are used in more than 100 countries and have been translated into numerous languages.

17.1.1. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR ULTRASONIC:

Imperfections which produce a response greater than 20% of the reference level shall be investigated to the extent that the operator can determine the shape, identity, and location of all such imperfections and evaluate them in terms of the acceptance standards given in (a) and (b) below.

Indications characterized as cracks, lack of fusion, or incomplete penetration is unacceptable regardless of other imperfections are unacceptable. If the indications exceed the reference level amplitude and have lengths which exceed:

·         1/4 in. (6 mm) for t up to 3/4 in. (19 mm);

·         1/3t for t from 3/4 in. to 21/4 in. (19 mm to 57 mm); (3) 3/4 in. (19 mm) for t over 21/4 in. (57mm).

Where t is the thickness of the weld excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld joining two members having different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full penetration weld includes a fillet weld, the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t.

1.    ASME B 16.34 – VALVES – ULTRASONIC TESTING ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS.

·Straight Beam Examination

Indications which are equal to or exceed that obtained from a 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) diameter flat bottomed hole in a calibration test piece of thickness equal to the defect depth are unacceptable.

·Angle Beam Examination

Indications which are equal to or exceed those obtained from a 60 deg V-notch, 25 mm (1.0 in.) long and having a depth not greater than 5% of the nominal wall thickness in a test piece are unacceptable.

2.    ASME B 31.1 – POWER PIPING – ULTRASONIC TESTING:

Welds that are shown by ultrasonic examination to have discontinuities that produce an indication greater than 20% of the reference level shall be investigated to the extent that ultrasonic examination personnel can determine their shape, identity, and location so that they may evaluate each discontinuity for acceptance in accordance with (B.1) and (B.2) below.

(B.1) Discontinuities evaluated as being cracks, lack of fusion, or incomplete penetration are unacceptable regardless of length.

(B.2) other discontinuities are unacceptable if the indication exceeds the reference level and their length exceeds the following:

(B.2.1)  ¼” (6.0 mm) for t up to ¾” (19.0 mm).

(B.2.2)  1/3 t for from ¾” (19.0 mm) to 2 ¼ “ (57.0 mm).

(B.2.3)  ¾”. (19.0 mm) for over 2¼” (57.0 mm)

Where is the thickness of the weld being examined. If the weld joins two members having different thicknesses at the weld, is the thinner of these two thicknesses.

3.    ASME B31.3 PROCESS PIPING – ULTRASONIC TESTING

Inspection of Weld Joints carried as per ASME Section V , Article 4 Pipe and Tubing

·      Pipe and tubing, required or selected in accordance with Table K305.1.2 to undergo ultrasonic examination, shall pass a 100% examination for longitudinal defects in accordance with ASTM E213 Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe and Tubing. Longitudinal (axial) reference notches shall be introduced on the outer and inner surfaces of the calibration (reference) standard in accordance with Fig. 3(c) of ASTM E213 to a depth not greater than the larger of 0.1 mm (0.004 in.) or 4% of specimen thickness and a length not more than 10 times the notch depth.

·      Acceptance Criteria. Any indication greater than that produced by the calibration notch representation Welds over 6mm thick can be ultrasonically tested in reference with procedure given in ASME Sec V article 4. Indications shall be sized using the applicable technique(s) provided in the written procedure for the examination method. Indications shall be evaluated for acceptance as follows:

·      All indications characterized as cracks, lack of fusion, or incomplete penetration are unacceptable regardless of length.

·      Indications exceeding 1/8 in. (3 mm) in length are considered relevant, and are unacceptable when their lengths exceed 1/8 in. (3 mm) for t up to 3/8 in. (10 mm). 1/3t for t from 3/8 in. to 21/4 in. (10 mm to 57 mm).(3) 3/4 in. (19 mm) for t over 21/4 in. (57 mm),

Where “t” is the thickness of the weld excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld joining two members having different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full penetration weld includes a fillet weld, the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t .

4.    API 1104 WELDING OF PIPELINES & RELATED FACILITIES – ULTRASONIC TESTING – ACCEPTANCE LEVEL

 Acceptance Standards 9.6.2.1 Indications determined to be cracks (C) shall be considered

Linear surface (LS) indications (other than cracks) interpreted to be open to the I.D. or O.D. surface shall be considered defects should any of the following conditions exist:

1.    The aggregate length of LS indications in any continuous 12”(300-mm) length of weld exceeds 1”. (25 mm).

2.    The aggregate length of LS Indications exceeds 8% of the weld

Linear buried (LB) indications (other than cracks) interpreted to be subsurface within the weld and not I.D. or O.D. surface-connected shall be considered defects should any of the following conditions exist:

1.    The aggregate length of LB indications in any continuous 12”(300-mm) length of weld exceeds 2” (50 mm).

2.    The aggregate length of LB indications exceeds 8% of the weld

Transverse (T) indications (other than cracks) shall be considered volumetric and evaluated using the criteria for volumetric indications. The letter T shall be used to designate all reported transverse indications.

·      Volumetric cluster (VC) indications shall be considered defects when the maximum dimension of VC indications exceeds 1/2 “ (13 mm).

·      Volumetric individual (VI) indications shall be considered defects when the maximum dimension of VI indications exceeds 1/4 “ (6 mm) in both width and

·      Volumetric root (VR) indications interpreted to be open to the D. surface shall be considered defects should any of the following conditions exist:

1.    The maximum dimension of VR indications exceeds 1/4“ (6mm).

2.    The total length of VR indications exceeds 1/2 “ (13 mm) in any continuous 12” (300 mm)

Any accumulation of relevant indications (AR) shall be considered a defect when any of the following conditions exist

1.    The aggregate length of indications above evaluation level exceeds 2 “(50 mm) in any 12” (300mm) length of

2.    The aggregate length of indications above evaluation level exceeds 8% of the weld

17.1.2. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MPT):

ASME B31.1, Power Piping Acceptance Standards. The following relevant indications are unacceptable: 

·         Any cracks or linear indications.

·         Rounded indications with dimensions greater than 3/16 in. (5.0 mm)

·         Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1/16 in. (2.0 mm) or less, edge to edge.

·         Ten or more rounded indications in any 6 sq. in of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in (150 mm) with the area taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII Div.1 Pressure Vessels Acceptance Standards. All surfaces to be examined shall be free of:

·         Relevant linear indications

·         Relevant rounded indications greater than 3/16 in.

·         Four or more relevant rounded indications in a line separated by 1/16 in. or less, edge to edge.

17.1.3. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (LPT):

·         ANSI/ASME B31.1

1.    Liner indication: Any crack or liner indication.

2.    Rounded indications: Indications is dimensions > 3/16” (5.0mm). Four or more rounded indication in a line separated by 1/16” (2.0mm) or less edge to edge. Ten or more rounded indication in any 6 sq. in. (3870mm2) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. (150mm)

·         ANSI/ASME B31.3

1.    Liner indications: Any cracks or linear indications.

2.    Rounded indications: Pending verification from ANSI.  Until otherwise stipulated by ANSI B31 Committee, apply B31.1 criteria for rounded indications.

·         ASME Section VIII Div. 1

1.    Relevant linear indication >1/16” (1.59mm)

2.    Relevant rounded indications >3/16: (4.77mm)

3.    Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1/16” (1.59mm) or less (edge to edge)

17.2. AMERICAN WELDING SOCEITY:

The American Welding Society (AWS) was founded in 1919 as a non-profit organization to advance the science, technology and application of welding and allied joining and cutting processes, including brazingsoldering and thermal spraying. AWS publishes codes on multiple aspects of welding and materials joining. The code books are assigned specific letters and numbers for easy reference, and many welders will refer to a specific code letter/number combination when referring to the code book. Different welding methodologies, inspection methods, and metals are published under different codes. For example, AWS B1.11 explains how to visually examine welds; AWS B2.1-1-004 explains welding carbon steel of thickness range of 18 through 10 gauge with semiautomatic metal gas arc welding; and AWS C2.20/C2.20M explains metalized zinc cathodic protection systems. Some codes also describe the standards used by AWS to certify welders, inspectors, and welding educators. All codes are available in hard copy, and in recent years AWS has started to make most codes available online. A very influential AWS code is AWS D1.1, which covers all general requirements for structural welding. This code has been adopted by ANSI as a National Standard in the United States.

17.2.1. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT): 

17.2.2. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR VISUAL TESTING (VT), MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MPT), LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (LPT):

17.3. ISO/ EN/ BS:

17.3.1. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT):

17.3.2. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (LPT):

17.3.3. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MPT):

18.0. CASTING and FORGING DEFECTIVE SAMPLE:

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